Equal and Different by Michael Harper
Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood-a response to Evangelical Feminism.
There are two predominate views on why there should or should not be a Male only Priesthood-
Egalitarianism - (Christians for Biblical Equality)
1.)No Gender distinctiveness , no role differences, either in
_the family or in the church-
_and women have the same function.
_belief in the ordination of women.
_dual leadership in the home.
_Definition of 'Equality' is that: to be equal is the ability to do
_the same thing.
_Scriptural basis of argument is Galatians 3:28- There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (NASB)
Complimentarinism - (Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood)
2.)Distinct roles for man and woman; in the family and the church.
_A mans role is given to him by God to lead and to be an authority figure. This leadership is not to be an Authoritarian but in loving service. Complimentarian is a call to service. Ephesians 5:25- Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her.
_Complimentarinism is the way that that the Trinity is viewed
__1Hierarchical- Equal in creation yet subordinate in role.
___Bishop, Priest (presbyter), Deacon
__2Patriacrical- Father and Son.
___This is what the priesthood should reflect.
__3Monarichal- Speaks with one voice.
___The Church should be governed with one voice,
___but by consensus. Not as a CEO or committee.
_it has practical implications in the way the world is viewed.
_Definition of 'Equality' is that: we are both made in the image of God, He loves us the same, we are created equal. Men and Women compliment each other this compliment is found in creation by Gods' design; but they serve the family and the church in different ways. God created man and woman in their essential dignity and human person-hood but different and complimentary in function with male headship in the home and church.
Headship Means: a spiritual responsibility in leadership in the home and church the Bible does not address the secular roles.
The Deaconess has a historical role in the Church; as a ministerial role in helping families, orphans, widows, the poor,etc. The Deaconess was mainly for spiritual care versus spiritual leadership.
Hermeneutics of 1st Corinthians 11
vs.2)The content is the Lords Supper as in Chapters 10 and 12
_it is 'traditions' not 'teachings'
vs.3)God the Father head of Christ head of Man head of Woman
__What does 'head' mean?- κεφάλι- kephale (Greek lexicon) the head, both of men and often of animals. Since the loss of the head destroys life, this word is used in the phrases relating to capital and extreme punishment. metaph. anything supreme, chief, prominent
A. of persons, master lord: of a husband in relation to his wife
B. of Christ: the Lord of the husband and of the Church
C. of things: the corner stone
___Spiritual Authority, also headship. There is a Hierarchical order for society family and the church. Hierarchical in the Trinity, Church, Family.
Egalitarian View interprets 'head' as "source" but this does not fit;
see Ephesians 5:23-
For the husband is the "source" of the wife, as Christ also is the "source" of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.
vs.4) Social status in a Greco/Roman Corinthian Society was to wear head coverings Paul is saying that the men are acting like women by wearing these head coverings
vs.5) The cultural assumption is that if the woman has her head UNcovered she was in sin somehow- Adultery, prostitution, or acting like men
vs.6) he is directly appealing to the need to follow these cultural norms that women are to appear as women. Head coverings showed that a woman was under authority/headship of the church.
vs.7)as a man I should not cover my head and fulfill my role as a man He will honor God and a woman fulfills her role she will honor God and her husband as well.
vs.8-9)What part of creation is Paul referring to? The Creation of woman; rib taken from man. If we believe that Creation is Truth the it is clear the order of the roles of men and women. It has theological implications as an argument for order based on creation Paul is appealing to Creation on 'headship' and that is is unchanging. The root of the matter is
timeless 'Shawl Wearing' is cultural and is therefore subject to change.
vs.10)a head covering is a sacrificial sign of authority as being a part Heavenly Worship, if we are going to participate in this heavenly worship it is only proper that we should show this level of order.
It would be a possible conclusion at this point that women are inferior if we left the text here.
In Corinthian Culture women were seen as property, their witness was suspect, because of their gender-her testimony was seen as invalid. Yet the Bible is elevating the position/status of women as seen in the case of Mary Magdalene being the first to find the risen Lord... If you were going to make a believable argument for his Resurrection you would not use a woman's testimony to prove your case...
The Pater Familias (plural: patres familias) was the highest ranking family status in an Anchient Roman household, always a male position. The pater familias had vitae necisque potestas - the "power of life and death" - over his children, his wife, and his slaves, all of whom were said to be sub manu, "under his hand". The patres familias were the only full legal persons. Women were always under the control (sub manu) of a pater familias. The woman was dominated; but Paul called on men to Love their wives, a radical shift from cultural norms of the day...
vs.11)there is an interdependent relationship
vs.12)you need each other- equal in person yet different in Roles.
vs.13)rhetorical question-referring to Natural Law.
vs.14)again appealing to Natural Law.
vs.15)indication of her femininity.
vs.16)this is the Apostolic Tradition- we do this everywhere not interpreted throughthe lens of 20th/21st century values.
What is the principal that underlies the text?
Men and women have a complimentary role, Men and Women should pray and prophesy in a manner that recognises that they are under headship/authority. Equal in person different in roles.
Hermeneutics of 1st Timothy 2
Timothy was the Bishop of Ephesus where one of the 7 wonders of the world resided; the Temple of Artemis
VS.9) when a woman wears these things her dress in this culture would be deemed as seductive.
vs.10) we should worship with good deeds (chapter 5:10) and be focusing on service and not involved with impropriety directly of indirectly.
In Ephesus there was a tremendous strain on the Christians due to the Temple of Artemis and so a lot of False Teaching prevailed-
False Teaching goes hand in hand with sexual immorality-
1)Sewed Distention through triviality.
3)Denied things that scripture permits.
4)encouraged women not to follow traditional family roles.
5)encouraged women not to marry.
vs.11)women SHOULD learn... is a step in elevation in this society and should have an attitude of submission.
Submission is defined as: Voluntary yielding to the authority of Christ in another person.
vs.12)explaining vs.11- I do not permit women to be elders in the church to teach, didache Greek- The transmitting of the Faith of the Church is the role of a man, to teach official doctrinal standards. Women are not to be governing or ruling elders of the church.
The women are trying to gain authority in the church-
The only thing Paul is prohibiting is women being
teaching-ruling elders of the church.
vs.13-14)From creation this was so- it is not saying that women are more easily deceived, but that if you want a disaster to come step outside of male headship-
_be what a woman is; a mother, modest, Proverbs 31:10-31, having values, not a seductress. Paul is not saying be barefoot and pregnant, but that your value is in Christ not in your outward appearance, Gods' love is your value.
ch.3:1)overseer is ἐπισκοπῆς episcopas Gr. It is a trustworthy statement: if any man aspires to the office of overseer, it is a fine work he desires to do.
Joel 2:28)you are not equal in ROLE just because you are equal in receiving the spirit.
1st Corinthians 14:29-40)Paul condemns an astatic (unstable) experience. The Montanists are a good example. It is not helpful to speak in tongues if there is no interpreter. There is a discernment process that Paul is laying out. Weigh - Discern. Take turns, it won't disappear it won't fly away. When you are experiencing the Spiritual Gifts you don't have to loose control.
So what is it that women should be silent about?
vs.27 speaking in tongues without an interpreter,
vs.30 if some one is seated the other must be silent (don't interrupt),
vs.35 any questions?-go ask your husband at home.
It does not mean they cannot prophesy
The text is saying they should not weigh the prophecy- that involves spiritual authority in the mans role....
Order of worship/prophecy-
Two or three prophets should speak.
vs.30 But if a revelation is made to another who is seated, the first one must keep silent.
The ones in authority should discern/weigh carefully what was said.
Wait to ask your husband if there are any questions/disagreements.
_you shouldn't argue during the order of worship.
Galatians 3:26-29)these verses speak to our Status in Christ
_we identify with our status through baptism.
_we are sons and heirs according to the promise-
not gender but through Faith (thank God)
Who? Jews, Greeks, Slaves, Free, Male, Female
Who? Races, Cultures, Economic, Social, Genders.
We are saved the same way as each other, in Christ through faith, has nothing to do with spiritual headship.
-equality in being different in role-